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[图文]MD500型直升机

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The Hughes/McDonnell-Douglas MD-500/530 series civil helicopter is a very popular version in the US & world helicopter market, well regarded as one of the best small size multi-purpose helicopter. Soon the company provided the MD500/530 Defender series of military variations. The fuselage of the military variations are the same with the civilian ones, excpet the TOW Defender. The US Army named these variations OH-6 Cayuse, AH-6 and MH-6, nickname "Little Bird".

休斯/麦道MD500/530系列民用直升机是美国乃至国际直升机市场中非常受欢迎的一种型号,被认为是最优秀的多用途直升机之一。MD500/530“防御者”是原美国休斯直升机公司(1985年8月27日并入麦克唐纳道格拉斯公司)在其MD500/530民用型系列直升机的基础上发展起来的军用型。除“陶”“防御者”外,其机体与民用500/530型相同。美陆军编号为OH-6“小马”,AH-6和MH-6,绰号“小鸟”。

The MD-500M is called OH-6A, developed from civilian MD500 with engine power increased. The engine is the same to the civilian version and the total fuel are 227l. This version was deployed in Apr,1968, and the users inclued Japan, Argentina, Bolivia, Denmark, Spain, Mexico and Philipin. The Argentina RACA company and the Japan Kawasaki industry had the license to build this version, the serail are 369HM/OH-6J & 369D/OH-6D. The OH-6J had been taken down from the product line. The MD500 anti-submarine variation for Spain Navy can carry AN/ASQ-81 magnetism sensor on the right side, as well as two MK44 torpedo under the fuselage. The control pannel of the sensor is on the center of the cockpit panel. The standard avionics of OH-6A are, AN/ARC-164 UHF radar, AN/ARC-115 UHF radar, AN/ARC-114 VHF radar, ARN-89 radio direstion finder set, APX-72 IFF, AN/ASN-43 gyro magnetic compass, ID-1315, C-6533/ARC interphone.

MD500M命名为OH-6A,是OH-6系列的加大功率型,由民用型MD500发展而来。发动机与MD500民用型相同,但燃油量为227升。该型于1968年4月首次交付使用,购买这种直升机的国家的:日本、阿根廷、玻利维亚、丹麦、西班牙、墨西哥和菲律宾。阿根廷RACA公司和日本川崎重工业公司专利生产这种直升机,编号分别为369HM/OH-6J(现已停产)和369D/OH-6D。OH-6A的标准轻型航空电子设备主要有:AN/ARC-164超高频调幅通信电台、AN/ARC-115超高频调幅通信电台、AN/ARC-114甚高频/调频通信电台、ARN-89无线电罗盘、APX-72敌我识别应答器、AN/ASN-43航向陀螺、ID-1315航向方位指示器及C-6533/ARC机内通话器。

During the vietnam war, the OH-6 was widely used as an observation and cavalry platform. The OH-6 would find targets by flying low, right over the tree tops, and lead in AH-1 Cobras to attack them. The AH/MH-6 Little Bird has been based on both the Army OH-6A Cayuse and originally designed as a military scout. The AH-6 is an attack varient.

越战期间,OH-6被当做观察和快速机动平台广泛使用。OH-6可以在树梢高度飞行,搜索目标,随即引导AH-1直升机发起攻击。AH/MH-6“小鸟”以OH-6A和最初设计的民用型为基础,常用于军事侦察,AH-6也可作为攻击改型。

MH-6特种作战直升机

The MD500MD Defender is the multi purpose military variation. The fuselage & engine are the same with the MD500D. The difference are, self-pressrize fuel tanke and the air inlet strainer. The customer could also ask to add on the armor, blackhole infrared suppresser and hardpoints which can carry TOW and other weapons. MD500MD fits for the missions like training, control & command, light arming attack, anti-submarine, transportation & airborne supply. It can carry seven people including the pilot. The airborne rescue variation can take two pilots, two litters and two nurses. The Korean Aviation Company assembled this version with license.

MD500MD“防御者”是基本的军用多用途型。机身和发动机采用MD500D民用型的设计,区别在于加装自密封燃油箱、发动机进气道过滤器。可选装装甲、“黑洞”红外抑制器和包括“陶”式反坦克导弹在内的各种武器及挂架。MD500MD“防御者”可执行如训练、指挥和控制、侦察、轻型攻击、反潜、运兵和后勤支援等人物。还能运载包括驾驶员在内的七名人员。空中救护型可载两名空勤人员、两副担架和两名医护人员。韩国航空公司按专利许可证生产这种型号。

The MD500MD reconnaissance Defender is a basic military variaion, too. The armament of it are 14 rounds of 2.75 inch rockets & a 7.62mm Minigun with 2000 rounds. Or one 40mm grenade launcher & a 7.62mm EX34 chain gun with 2000 rounds. The Kenya Army bought 15 MD500MD, Korea had 144.

MD500MD侦察“防御者”的基本军用型能携带各种武器,如14枚70毫米(2.75英寸)火箭和一挺7.62毫米“米尼冈”机枪,外加2000发子弹;一个40毫米榴弹发射器,和一挺7.62毫米EX34链式机枪,外加2000发子弹。肯尼亚陆军购买了15架,韩国购买了144架。

The MD500MD TOW Defender keeps down the nose of the MD500, with a M65 TOW aiming system. Four TOW anti tank missles are fitted on the hardpoints on both sides. Inside the fuselage there are the aiming control system and handrail for the shooter, and control display for the pilot. The engine can be Allison 250-C20, 250-C20R or 250-C30. Israel Airforce had 30 MD500MDs, Kenya had 15 and Korea 50. The MD500MD/MMS TOW is based on MD version with an add on rotor mast aiming system.

MD500MD“陶”“防御者”保留了最初MD500的机头,机头装有M65“陶”瞄准具。装有4枚“陶”式反坦克空地导弹。机内为射手设有瞄准控制装置和扶手,以及驾驶员用的操纵指示器。可装艾利逊公司250-C20,250-C20R或250-C30发动机。以色列空军购买30架,肯尼亚购买15架,韩国购买50架。MD500MD/MMS“陶”反坦克型在MD型的基础上,加装了旋翼轴瞄准具。

The MD500MD anti-submarine Defender is the anti-submarine and search variation. The two-man helicopter has a search radar on the nose, AN/ASQ-81 towed Magnetic Anomaly Detection system (MAD)on the side. And other equipments are smoke launcher, winch system, emergency floating system, two Mk44/Mk46 torpedo. Special instruments include 15.24mm pose displayer & radar altimeter. The maxium takeoff weight of it is 1610kg. When proceeding the typical anti-submarine missions with 40~160km voyage, the MD500MD can remain in flight for 1 hour & 48 mins. Since May 1979, 12 of this variation were deployed in the Taiwan Navy.

MD500MD反潜“防御者”是反潜与水面搜索型。载两名机组人员,机头上设有搜索雷达、AN/ASQ-81拖曳式磁异探测器、烟雾弹发射器、拉降装置、应急漂浮装置、两枚Mk44或Mk46寻的鱼雷。磁异探测设备的控制盒安装在仪表板和中央操纵台上。特殊仪表有一个15.24厘米的姿态指示器和雷达高度表。最大起飞重量为1610千克。在执行典型反潜任务、航程为40~160千米时,能在空中停留1小时48分钟。1979年5月开始交付给中国台湾海军12架。

MD500MD Defender II multi purpose variation`s development was begun in the summer of 1980. This type can use the standard 5 flaked rotor and the new 4 flaked Low Noise tail rotor, which runs 25% slower than the original 2 flaked tail rotor so that 47% noise cut down. The selectable equipments are rotor mast aiming system, two pods with 2 TOW missiles for each, Blackhole infrared suppresser, two pods with 2 Stinger missiles or other types of air-to-air missiles for each, FLIR system for pilot, AN/APR-39(V-1) radar warning system, fuel tank on hardpoints, advanced avionics and mission equipments.

MD500MD“防御者”Ⅱ多任务型。1980年夏开始研制。该型装有标准的5片桨叶旋翼,也可选装4片桨叶的“低噪音”尾桨,其转速比标准的两片桨叶尾桨慢25%。据说噪声可减少47%。选装设备包括:旋翼轴瞄准具、装4枚“陶”式反坦克导弹的2个双联吊舱、“黑洞”红外抑制器、装两枚“毒刺”或其它空-空导弹的吊舱、飞行员用前视红外夜视系统、直升机被雷达制导的武器跟踪时会报警的AN/APR-39(V-1)设备、副油箱和先进的航空电子设备与任务设备组件。旋翼轴瞄准具可将视频信号输给飞行员的电视显示器。旋翼轴瞄准具备激光测距仪。为了不被敌人发现,“防御者”Ⅱ直升机可借助旋翼轴瞄准具在树木或地形后面进行隐蔽悬停,而且还能观察战场远处的情况。只要稍作改装,就可安装为OH-6A研制的标准轻型航空电子设备。

MD500MG Defender has a 313kw Allison 250-C20B turboshaft engine and the rotor of the MD500E. Feb 1986, the MD company delivered 6 MD500MG to Columbia Airforce, and 22 to Philipin Airforce in Aug 1990. Jul 1985, a low price MG variation appeared, mainly do the job as security, border guarding, rescue, anti-drugs.

MD500MG“防御者”研制始于1982年末,原休斯直升机公司根据武装直升机驾驶员的反馈,以民用型MD530F的机体和动力装置为基础研制MD530MG“防御者”。该型装有一台313千瓦(426轴马力)艾利逊公司250-C20B涡轮轴发动机。1986年2月,麦克唐纳道格拉斯公司向哥伦比亚空军交付了6架,1990年8月交付给菲律宾空军22架。1985年7月推出一种便宜的准军用MG“防御者”型,主要用于治安、边境巡逻、救援、反毒品。

The cockpit of MG is very modern, decreasing the time pilot needs to make decision and proceed helicopter management so that the work is cut down. The intergrade cockpit has a compact multi function display which widened the view of the cockpit. The pilot can only used the joy stick to control the plane in all the flight time. A 79.5l fuselage inside fuel tank can be added.

驾驶舱非常先进,缩短了驾驶员作关键性决定和直升机管理任务所需的时间,减轻了工作负荷。综合驾驶舱装有一个紧凑的多功能显示器,扩大了座舱的视野。飞行员在整个飞行时间内都可以握杆操纵对直升机实施操纵。可选装一个79.5升的内部辅助油箱。

MG would mainly be used to destroy the point target and tanks. The equipments are RAMS3000 intergrade control and display system for all weather & low altitude flight. The system fits the MIL-STD-1553B interface, made up of PIU, CDU, dual DTD connected with 1553B bus. The multi function display gets a high quality single color CRT. Pressing the function button on the display set pannel can proceed kinds of functions. The selectable equipments are TOW rotor mast aiming system, FLIR, radar warning system, IFF, laser range detector.

MD530MG主要用于攻击点目标和反坦克。设备有用于全天候和贴地飞行的RAMS3000综合控制与显示系统。这种系统可以与MIL-STD-1553B接口匹配,由处理机接口装置(PIU)、控制显示装置(CDU)和双套与1553B数据总线联接的数据传输装置(DTD)构成。多功能显示器有一个高分辨率单色阴极射线管。使用控制显示装置键盘上的专用键能完成各种功能。选装的航空电子设备包括:“陶”式导弹旋翼轴瞄准系统、前视红外装置、雷达告警接收机、敌我识别器和激光测距仪。

The weapons are TOW missile, two 7.62mm or one 12.7mm FN gun pod, one 70mm 7 rounds or 12 rounds pod. Four Sting missiles and a 7.62mm chain gun can be used, too. The MG can launch chaff and flare when needed.

武器包括“陶”式反坦克导弹,装两挺7.62毫米或一挺12.7毫米机枪的FN武器吊舱和70毫米火箭的7管或12管发射巢。还可以用4枚“毒刺”空空导弹和一挺7.62毫米链式自动机枪。MG型可使用金属箔条和红外诱饵曳光弹。

The MD500 Nightfox was first shown in Jan 1986, designed for night reconnaissance and other purposes. The Nightfox has a FLIR, night vision goggles and the same weapons of MD500MG. Four Nightfox had deployed in Columbia Airforce. The Nightfox has two versions, 500MG Nightfox & 530MG Nightfox.

MD500“夜狐”(Nightfox) 1986年1月推出,用于夜间侦察和其它军事用途。该型装有前视红外热成象设备和夜视镜,武器与MD530MG的相同。交付4架MD500MG“夜狐”给哥伦比亚空军。“夜狐”分500MG“夜狐”和530MG“夜狐”两种型式。

In US army, the MD500/530 are the H-6 series. The variations of H-6 series are AH-6C/EH-6B/MH-6B, based on OH-6A, with 252 SHP Allison T-63 engine. AH-6F/MH-6E, based on MD-500MG with 420 SHP Allison 250 C20 gas turbine. AH-6G/AH-6F/MH-6F, based on MD-530MG with 650 SHP Allison 250 C30 gas turbine.

美陆军内的MD500/530系列命名为H-6系列。H-6系列的改型还包括AH-6C/EH-6B/MH-6B,由OH-6A发展而来,采用252马力阿里迅T-63发动机。AH-6F/MH-6E由MD-500MG和420马力阿里迅250-C20发动机发展而来。AH-6G/AH-6F/MH-6F,同样以MD-530MG为基础,使用650马力阿里迅250-C30发动机。

The EH-6 was designed for command and control and radio relay, but all had retired now. The NOTAR (No Tail Rotor) system was once fitted on an EH-6 for testing, a jet spout was added in the tail to work as the tail rotor. But the performance is poor because requires more power from the engine. So the NOTAR is now only used in civilian versions.

EH-6是H-6系列中指挥控制和通信中继型号,但目前已退役。EH-6曾一度采用无尾桨系统,尾桨被一个尾部喷口取代。但由于无尾桨系统要耗费更多的发动机功率,性能表现不好。因此无尾桨系统后来仅为民用型号采用。

The MD500E NOTAR helicopter. MD500E无尾桨直升机。

2002年4月,加拿大航空电子设备公司与美陆军签订协议,向其特种部队提供航空训练与演习系统(ASTARS)。首份交货单价值约5000万美元,CAE将设计出第一个AH/MH-6轻型突击/攻击可再组合作战任务模拟器(CMS),用以训练相应直升机飞行人员。模拟器直径约7米,为半球形,将用于美陆军第160特种部队航空大队(SOAR)。该大队就是正在攻打阿富汗中扮演重要角色的“夜间潜行者”(Night Stalkers)。AH/MH-6模拟器将同现行美国特种作战司令部任务演习以及数据库生成系统互相配合工作,以确保联合军事行动和任务训练有素、行之有效。

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