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乔治·戴维斯:被张积慧击落的美军王牌

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编者按:可能我们很多人都知道在朝鲜战争中志愿军空军英雄张积慧击落美军黄牌飞行员戴维斯的故事。但是很少有人了解戴维斯是何等样的人,这里收集了一部分戴维斯的资料和照片,供有兴趣的读者和战史研究者使用。

戴维斯(George Andrew Davis),1920年10月1日出生于美国德克萨斯州都柏林,1952年2月10日死于朝鲜战场。1942年参加美国空军,在二战期间驾驶P-47型战斗机,共参加266次空战,飞行时间705小时,拥有击落敌机7架的记录。

二战后戴维斯接受了喷气式战斗机的培训,曾经是美国空军“雷鸟表演队”前身的“空中舞蹈表演队”的成员。在朝鲜战争中,戴维斯少校是美空军第五军第4联队334拦截机中队的中队长,拥有击落14架米格-15飞机的记录,被称为“米格机猎手”。曾获“荣誉勋章”和“紫心勋章”,历史上美空军仅17人获“荣誉勋章”。

1952年2月10日被年轻的志愿军空军飞行员张积慧击落在鸭绿江边新义州以南50公里处,飞机最后撞在山上。美方称没有找到戴维斯的尸体,最终由朝鲜战争的退伍军人在得克萨斯州的卢博克建立了一个纪念碑。

George Andrew Davis

戴维斯的F-86佩刀式战斗机,左边的一位就是戴维斯。

从左到右: George A. Davis (击落两架Tu-2s和一架 iG-15), Ben Preston (击落一架La-11)

Winton "Bones" Marshall (一架Tu-2 和一架La-11),1951年11月30日.

1951年2月5日,戴维斯声称击落两架米格-15。

调查结果表明他只击落了一架,是由苏联空军 Anatoly I. Baturov 驾驶的。

戴维斯(George Andrew Davis)的纪念碑

击落戴维斯的志愿军空军英雄张积慧

张积慧(1927―)

山东荣成县人。1945年参加八路军并加入中国共产党,1951年参加中国人民志愿军入朝作战,任志愿军空军第4师12团3大队飞行大队长、副团长、团长、空军副司令员。

在抗美援朝作战中曾10多次参加空战,击落击伤敌机5架。1952年2月10日,在反美军凭借其空中优势,对朝鲜北方的交通要道进行封锁的“绞杀战”中,张积慧和战友们一道并肩作战,并由他一举击落美国空军英雄、少校中队长、号称“空中一霸”的“王牌飞行员”乔治-阿-戴维斯,从而打破了“美国空军英雄不可战胜”的神话,引起美军,特别是美国空军的巨大震惊。对于他的出色表现,志愿军空军为他记特等功,授予“中国人民志愿军一级战斗英雄”称号,并被誉为“空中英雄”、“空中突击手”。朝鲜政府授予他朝鲜民主主义人民共和国一级、二级自由独立勋章、军功章。

参考资料:

戴维斯小传(英语版)

GEORGE ANDREW DAVIS JR. (1920 ~ 1952). Medal of Honor recipient George Davis Jr. was born on December 1, 1920, in Dublin, Texas, to Pearl and George Davis Sr. After graduating from Morton High School in Morton, Texas, he attended Harding College in Searcy, Arkansas. Davis joined the Army Air Corps as an aviation cadet on March 21, 1942, in Lubbock, Texas. He was commissioned a Second Lieutenant after completing flight training on February 16, 1943.

In August 1943, Davis was assigned to the 342 Fighter Squadron, 348 Fighter Group, Fifth Fighter Command of the Southwest Pacific as a P-47 fighter pilot. Between August 30, 1943 and March 23, 1945, Davis completed 266 combat missions with a total of 705 hours of combat flight. During these missions he shot down seven enemy aircraft. For his service in World War II, Davis was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross with an Oak Leaf Cluster, the Silver Star, and the Air Medal with eight Oak Leaf Clusters.

Davis returned to the United States May 3, 1945. After completing a Student Flight Refresher Training course at Goodfellow Field, Texas, he was assigned as Base Operations Officer there from July to August 1945. Davis was transferred five times between 1945 and 1951, serving as a Jet Fighter Pilot, Flight Commander, and Air Inspector in California, Tennessee, New York, and Pennsylvania. While stationed at March Air Force Base, California, in 1950, Davis was a member of the Sabre Dancers jet demonstration team, a forerunner of the Air Force Thunderbirds, and was commended by his commanding officer, Colonel Howell Estes, for his performance in a public air show that year. He was promoted to Major in February 1951, and in October of that year he was sent to Korea. Davis was assigned to the Fourth Fighter-Interceptor Group as a Jet Fighter Pilot from October 23 to November 9, 1951. He was then assigned to the 334 Fighter-Interceptor Squadron as Squadron Commander.

On February 10, 1952, Davis led a group of four F-86 jet fighters on a patrol near the Manchurian border. One of the pilots in the group ran out of oxygen and was forced to retire from the area with his wingman. Davis and his wingman continued the patrol. They soon sighted what they estimated to be 12 MIG-15 fighters which were about to attack friendly bombers conducting low-altitude operations nearby. Despite being outnumbered, Davis attacked the MIG formation and shot down two enemy planes. He turned to make another pass and was hit by hostile fire. His wingman, First Lieutenant William Littlefield, saw Davis's plane crash into a mountain 30 miles south of the Yalu River. His body was never recovered. It was Davis's sixtieth combat mission in Korea and the two MIGs he shot down were his thirteenth and fourteenth kills, making him the leading ace pilot at the time.

For his courageous attack, which enabled the bombers to complete their mission, Davis was posthumously awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor in addition to the Distinguished Service Cross, a second Silver Star, a ninth cluster for his Air Medal, and a third cluster for his Distinguished Flying Cross. His wife, Doris Forgason Davis, received the Medal of Honor from General Nathan Twining at Reese Air Force Base on May 14, 1954. Davis's three children, Mary Margaret, George III, and Charles Lynn, his parents, and Senator Lyndon B. Johnson were also in attendance. Davis's name is inscribed on the Wall of the Missing at the National Memorial of the Pacific in Honolulu, Hawaii. Also, a veteran's memorial was dedicated to him in Lubbock, Texas, on November 16, 1990; his official Medal of Honor headstone was placed there as a cenotaph by the Department of Veterans Affairs.

Bibliography: "Above and Beyond: The Medal of Honor in Texas," Capitol Visitors Center, State Preservation Board of Texas. Handbook of Texas Online, Texas State Historical Association, University of Texas,

http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/DD/fda78.html, April 26, 2006. "Lt. Col. George A. Davis Jr.," Korean War 50th Anniversary, United States Air Force Museum,

http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/history/korea50/k50-14.htm, April 26, 2006.

GEORGE ANDREW DAVIS JR. (1920 ~ 1952). Medal of Honor recipient George Davis Jr. was born on December 1, 1920, in Dublin, Texas, to Pearl and George Davis Sr. After graduating from Morton High School in Morton, Texas, he attended Harding College in Searcy, Arkansas. Davis joined the Army Air Corps as an aviation cadet on March 21, 1942, in Lubbock, Texas. He was commissioned a Second Lieutenant after completing flight training on February 16, 1943.

In August 1943, Davis was assigned to the 342 Fighter Squadron, 348 Fighter Group, Fifth Fighter Command of the Southwest Pacific as a P-47 fighter pilot. Between August 30, 1943 and March 23, 1945, Davis completed 266 combat missions with a total of 705 hours of combat flight. During these missions he shot down seven enemy aircraft. For his service in World War II, Davis was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross with an Oak Leaf Cluster, the Silver Star, and the Air Medal with eight Oak Leaf Clusters.

Davis returned to the United States May 3, 1945. After completing a Student Flight Refresher Training course at Goodfellow Field, Texas, he was assigned as Base Operations Officer there from July to August 1945. Davis was transferred five times between 1945 and 1951, serving as a Jet Fighter Pilot, Flight Commander, and Air Inspector in California, Tennessee, New York, and Pennsylvania. While stationed at March Air Force Base, California, in 1950, Davis was a member of the Sabre Dancers jet demonstration team, a forerunner of the Air Force Thunderbirds, and was commended by his commanding officer, Colonel Howell Estes, for his performance in a public air show that year. He was promoted to Major in February 1951, and in October of that year he was sent to Korea. Davis was assigned to the Fourth Fighter-Interceptor Group as a Jet Fighter Pilot from October 23 to November 9, 1951. He was then assigned to the 334 Fighter-Interceptor Squadron as Squadron Commander.

On February 10, 1952, Davis led a group of four F-86 jet fighters on a patrol near the Manchurian border. One of the pilots in the group ran out of oxygen and was forced to retire from the area with his wingman. Davis and his wingman continued the patrol. They soon sighted what they estimated to be 12 MIG-15 fighters which were about to attack friendly bombers conducting low-altitude operations nearby. Despite being outnumbered, Davis attacked the MIG formation and shot down two enemy planes. He turned to make another pass and was hit by hostile fire. His wingman, First Lieutenant William Littlefield, saw Davis's plane crash into a mountain 30 miles south of the Yalu River. His body was never recovered. It was Davis's sixtieth combat mission in Korea and the two MIGs he shot down were his thirteenth and fourteenth kills, making him the leading ace pilot at the time.

For his courageous attack, which enabled the bombers to complete their mission, Davis was posthumously awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor in addition to the Distinguished Service Cross, a second Silver Star, a ninth cluster for his Air Medal, and a third cluster for his Distinguished Flying Cross. His wife, Doris Forgason Davis, received the Medal of Honor from General Nathan Twining at Reese Air Force Base on May 14, 1954. Davis's three children, Mary Margaret, George III, and Charles Lynn, his parents, and Senator Lyndon B. Johnson were also in attendance. Davis's name is inscribed on the Wall of the Missing at the National Memorial of the Pacific in Honolulu, Hawaii. Also, a veteran's memorial was dedicated to him in Lubbock, Texas, on November 16, 1990; his official Medal of Honor headstone was placed there as a cenotaph by the Department of Veterans Affairs. Ge

orge Andrew Davis. Jr.

George Andrew Davis, Jr., enlisted in the Air Corps, Army of the United States, at Lubbock, Texas, on 21 March 1942, and was appointed an Aviation Cadet on 3 June 1942, and completed the prescribed ground training course at Kelly Field, Texas, in August 1942. He transferred to the Primary Flying School, at Jones Field, Texas, and finished the course in October 1942, and then entered the Basic Flying School at Waco, Texas, finishing this course in December 1942. He transferred to the Advanced Flying School, Aloe Field, Texas. Upon completion of his pilot training he was commissioned a Second Lieutenant, Air Corps Reserve, on 16 February 1943, and rated pilot. After receiving his commission he was immediately called to active duty with the Air Corps and assigned as fighter pilot with the 312th Fighter Group. On 14 August 1943, he departed the United States by air for duty in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater of Operations. Upon arrival overseas he was assigned to the 342d Fighter Squadron, 348th Fighter Group, 5th Air Force, as fighter pilot. During his assignment from 30 August 1943 to 23 March 1945, he completed 266 combat missions for a total of 705 combat hours, destroyed seven enemy aircraft, and was awarded the Silver Star, Distinguished Flying Cross with one Oak Leaf Cluster, and the Air Medal with eight Oak Leaf Clusters. He returned to the United States 3 May 1945, and received Student Flight Refresher Training at Goodfellow Field, Texas, from 19 June to 4 July 1945. From 5 July to 10 August 1945, he was assigned as Base Operations Officer at Goodfellow Field, Texas. On 11 August 1945, he transferred to the 556th Army Air Forces Base Unit, Long Beach, California; 7 September 1946, assigned to the 554th Army Air Forces Base Unit, Memphis, Tennessee; 6 January 1947, assigned to the 71st Fighter Squadron, 1st Fighter Group, at March Air Force Base, California, Griffiss Air Force Base, New York, and Greater Pittsburgh Airport, Coraopolis, Pennsylvania, until 16 September 1951. During this period he was assigned duties as Flight Commander, Air Inspector, and Jet Fighter Pilot. On 16 October 1951, he departed the United States for duty in the Far East. Upon arrival, he was assigned as Jet Fighter Pilot with Headquarters 4th Fighter-Interceptor Group from 23 October to 9 November 1951. On 10 November 1951, he was assigned as Squadron Commander of the 334th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron and served with this organization until 10 February 1952, the date of his death. Colonel Davis was killed in action on 10 February 1952 while serving as the pilot of an F-86 aircraft participating in a combat mission over North Korea. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism on 27 November 1951 in action near Sinanju, Korea, and the nation's highest decoration, the Medal of Honor, for conspicuous gallantry on 10 February 1952.

However, in his book Red Wings over the Yalu: China, the Soviet Union, and the Air War in Korea, pages#163-168, Dr. Xiaoming Zhang shows the Chinese version of the air combat where George Davis was killed, and he also noted some interesting contradictions in the American official version of Davis' death:

Initially USAF did not report losses on February 10 1952, and claimed only one victory and three probables (that information was given by USAF to the "New York Times" thru an official communicate, and published in the article "Sabres Fight MiGs Five In Day" on February 11).

Only two days later, on February 12, USAF admitted the loss of Major Davis and corrected the tally for February 10 to two confirmed kills and one probable (evidently confirming one of the "probables" and discarding another), and only then credited both victories to Davis (FEAF Weekly Intelligence Roundup No.76, February 16 1952, USAFHRA) .

It is not clear why these two victories were credited to Davis, there was no guncamera footage to support such claims - that footage went down with the aircraft Davis flew that day, the F-86E BuNo 51-2752 (same source than previous item).

USAF authorities never performed a proper investigation about how an squadron leader so notorious like Davis made such undisciplined move that resulted in his death. That seemed to be irrelevant for them. They wanted Davis to die like a national hero, and that was why they awarded him the Medal of Honor and promoted him to Lieutenant Colonel. So many honors buried the main questions: "How?" "Why?"

After reading the available Chinese sources -the letter of Liu Yalou (CO of the PLAAF) to Mao Zedong on February 23 1952, and "Lantian zhi lu" (recollections of Chinese pilots) - Dr. Xiaoming Zhang found out the following facts:

On February 10 1952, 36 Chinese MiG-15s of the 4th Division scrambled at 7:30 hours (8:30 hours Seoul time) in two main groups to engage fighter-bombers approaching Kunu-ri. These two groups engaged the American Sabres in two separated air battles - both occurred at about 7:40 hs Beijing (8:40 hs Seoul time).

The first battle occurred over Taegwan-dong (45 miles SE of Sinuiju) and no blood was drawn: the Chinese neither did claim victories nor suffered losses.

The second battle happened over Taechon, and during it The Chinese Air Force (PLAAF) claimed two F-86 kills but lost three MiGs by Sabres.

The MiG-15 pilot who was credited with both F-86 kills (and comsequently with shooting down Major George A. Davis) was Zhang Jihui.

Both Zhang Jihui and his wingman Zhiyu Shan were two of the three Chinese losses that day, being both shot down AFTER Zhang destroyed Davis' F-86. The unfortunate Zhiyu perished.

简史;

  1946年3月,中国人民解放军第一所航空学校--东北民主联军航空学校在吉林通化成立。◆早期培养的一批航空骨干、选调的陆军官兵以及日军起义人员,在这里开始了中国空军艰难的创业。他们收集了100多架破旧飞机,又拆东补西修复了40多架。缺少汽油,就用酒精代替;没有保险带,就用麻绳代替;缺少机轮、螺旋桨,几架飞机合着用;没用充气设备,就用自行车气筒给给飞机轮胎充气。士兵们甚至用马拉着飞机走向跑道。就这样,航校在3年多的时间里培育出了560名航空人才,为人民空军的建立准备了骨干。

  

  1949年11月11日,中央军委下令,在第四野战军十四兵团机关的基础上,合并军委航空局,正式成立中国人民解放军空军司令部,刘亚楼任司令员。1950年4月11日,刘亚楼向中央军委递交了建议组建第一支航空兵部队的报告。5月9日,中央军委批复同意并命名为"中国人民解放军空军第4混成旅"。1950年6月19日,中国空军的第一支航空部队--空军第四混成旅在南京成立,辖2个歼击团,1个轰炸团和1个强击团。飞行人员绝大部分是东北老航校毕业的飞行员,还有少量国军起义飞行人员。教官有日本教官、苏联教官,飞机有英制、美制、日制,机种有战斗机、轰炸机、运输机、教练机。

  

  1950年6月,朝鲜战争爆发,战火很快燃烧到鸭绿江边,刚刚诞生的中国空军航空兵被逼上了这场历史性的空战舞台。战争初期,美国拥15个空军联队,作战飞机1100余架,飞行员大部分参加过第二次世界大战,飞行时间多在1000小时以上。而中国空军仅有新建的2个歼击航空兵师(空3师、空4师)和空军第4混成旅第17轰炸团、第13强击团,作战飞机只有114架,飞行员仅有100小时左右的飞行时间,在喷气式飞机上平均只飞了20多小时,且无空中作战经验。美国远东军总司令麦克阿瑟宣称:"中国根本没有空军。

  

  然而,就是这支被美国人讥讽为"菜鸡"的中国空军,不仅敢与号称世界一流的美国空军较量,而且使其遭到沉重打击。1951年1月21日,最先进驻安东机场的空4师10团28大队大队长李汉率领6架米格-15歼击机迎战美军20架F-84战斗轰炸机,李汉击伤美机1架,奏响长空第一战凯歌。8天以后,即1951年1月29日,李汉在空战中击落、击伤敌F-84各1架,首创人民空军空战史上击落敌机的战例。1951年9月25日,空4师第12团副团长李文模率领16架米格-15歼击机迎战美军20架F-86"佩刀"战斗机,4号机刘涌新击落敌机1架,首创中国空军击落美国最先进的F-86的战绩。

  

  1951年11月6日,空8师22团9架杜-2轰炸机在空2师4团16架拉-11歼击机的掩护下,对鸭绿江外的大和岛实施了轰炸,这是中国空军航空兵轰炸机第一次出现在朝鲜战场的上空,轰炸命中高率达90%。美联社惊呼:"大和岛遭到欧洲空军的精确轰炸"(暗示是苏联空军所为)。至今仍在使用的美国空军大学教材承认:中国空军对大和岛的轰炸是成功的。11月30日,空8师24团9架杜-2轰炸机与空2师4团16架拉-11歼击机编成联合机群对大和岛实施第二次轰炸,途中与30多架美国F-86喷气式战斗机发生遭遇战,轰炸机通讯长刘绍基用机枪击落敌机1架,开创了世界空战史上活塞螺旋浆式轰炸机击落喷气式战斗机的先例!担任护航任务的拉-11歼击机也接连打下2架敌机。副大队长王天保、大队长徐怀堂各击落1架F-86,又创造了世界空战史上的活塞螺旋浆式歼击机击落喷气式战斗机的奇迹!

  

  1952年2月10日,飞行时间才100多小时的空4师12团3大队大队长张积慧,一举击落飞行时间3000多小时、在第二次世界大战中参战266次的美国王牌飞行员中校中队长戴维斯。消息传开,美国朝野震动,美远东空军司令威兰中将不得不承认:"这是一个悲惨的失败,是对远东空军的一个沉重打击。

  

  年轻的中国空军航空兵在朝鲜战争中边打边建,边打边练,在战斗中锻炼成长,先后有10个歼击师21个团,2个轰炸机师3个大队入朝参战,共战斗起飞2457批26491架次,取得击落敌机330架,击伤95架的骄人战绩,给世界上最强大的美国空军以极大的心理震撼!时任美国远东空军司令的威兰中将后来回忆道:"中国空军对我们来说,一直是一个谜,他们好像一个晚上便学会了一切,飞行员只要很少的时间,就能够空战,他们好像在冥冥之中似有神助,对于我们来说很多事情不可思议!"时任美国空军参谋长的范登堡将军在飞往远东视察后回到华盛顿时,曾作了一个悲观的报告,他对报界谈话时惊叹:"共产党中国几乎在一夜之间就变成了世界上主要空军强国之一。

志愿军空军英雄王天保

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